Exploration of the environmental and socioeconomic implications of HCFC-22 phase-out for Botswana
Kudoma B.; Tekere M.
Date Issued2021
Other AbstractClimate change and ozone depletion are topics challenging the world over and are both attributed mainly to human activities, particularly emissions of ozone depleting substances. One such substance is chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22), a cheap, widely used refrigerant with a high global warming potential and a chemical target for phase-out under the Montreal protocol. Botswana like all signatory countries to the Montreal Protocol is required to develop and implement a country-level Hydrochlorofluorocarbon Phase-out Management Plan (HPMP). This study focused on evaluating the environmental and socioeconomic implications of phasing out HCFC-22 in Botswana. A census of nine HCFC-22-importing companies was conducted and probability sampling proportional to company size was used to select a sample of 159 respondents from the Department of Meteorological Services, Customs officers and HCFC-22 Industrial consumers. Annual HCFC-22 importation figures for Botswana in 2009–2017 from the National Ozone Unit were analysed. It emerged that HCFC-22 phase-out had reduced HCFC-22 consumption by approximately 510,400 kg in 2011–2017, translating to 28,072 ozone depleting potential (ODP) saved. Also, the HCFC-22 phase-out plan saved the country 128 kW h of electricity for 2009–2017. While decreasing demand for HCFC-22, the HPMP had correspondingly occasioned the higher replacement and servicing costs of HCFC-22-compliant equipment, as HCFC-22 substitutes cost more. To deter use of HCFC-22 and promote phase-out, the price of substitute refrigerants can be made less expensive than HCFC-22. Participating stakeholders attest that HCFC-22 phase-out has positive social benefits such as raising community awareness of the ozone depleting phase-out. As a recommendation, the government of Botswana could offer a number of incentives towards HCFC-22 substitutes uptake in order to give impetus to technology transfer. © 2021 National Climate Center (China Meteorological Administration)
journalAdvances in Climate Change Research
Document Type期刊论文
AffiliationDepartment of Environmental Sciences, School of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, University of South Africa (UNISA), Florida, 1710, South Africa; Department of Safety Management, BA ISAGO University, Francistown, 267, Botswana
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Kudoma B.,Tekere M.. Exploration of the environmental and socioeconomic implications of HCFC-22 phase-out for Botswana[J],2021.
APA Kudoma B.,&Tekere M..(2021).Exploration of the environmental and socioeconomic implications of HCFC-22 phase-out for Botswana.Advances in Climate Change Research.
MLA Kudoma B.,et al."Exploration of the environmental and socioeconomic implications of HCFC-22 phase-out for Botswana".Advances in Climate Change Research (2021).
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